Saturday, March 14, 2020
How Your Actions May Be Unintentionally Racist In the aftermath of the presidential election of 2016, many people have experienced relationship blowouts with friends, family, romantic partners, and colleagues over accusations of racism. Many of those who voted for Donald Trump have found themselves accused of being racist, as well as sexist, misogynist, homophobic, and xenophobic. Those making the accusations feel this way because they associate these forms of discrimination with the candidate himself, on account of statements he made and behaviors he displayed throughout the campaign, and the likely outcomes of policies and practices that he supports. But many of those accused find themselves confused and angry at the accusation, and feel that exercising their right to vote for the political candidate of their choice does not make them a racist, nor any other form of oppressor. So, who is in the right? Does voting for a certain political candidate make someone a racist? Can our actions be racist even though we dont mean them to be? Lets consider these questions from a sociological standpointÃ and draw on social science theory and research to answer them. Dealing With the R Word When people are accused of being a racist in todays United States they often experience this accusation as an attack on their character. Growing up, we are taught that being racist is bad. It is considered among the worst crimes ever committed on U.S. soil, in the forms of genocide of Native Americans, enslavement of Africans and their descendants, violence and segregation during the Jim Crow era, Japanese internment, and the fierce and violent resistance shown by many to integration and the 1960s movement for Civil Rights, to name just a handful of notable cases. The way that we learn this history suggests that formal, institutional racism- that enforced by law- is a thing of the past. It follows, then, that the attitudes and behaviors among the wider population that worked to enforce racism through informal means is also (mostly) a thing of the past too. We are taught that racists were bad people who lived in our history, and because of that, the problem is largely behind us. So, its understandable that when a person is accused of racism today, it seems a ghastly thing to say, and a nearly unspeakable thing to say directly to a person. This is why, since the election, as this accusation has been hurled between family members, friends, and loved ones, relationships have blown up over social media, text, and in person. In a society that prides itself in being diverse, inclusive, tolerant, and color blind, calling someone a racist is one of the worst insults that can be made. But lost in these accusations and blowups is what racism actually means in todays world, and the diversity of forms that racist actions take. What Racism Is Today Sociologists believe that racism exists when ideas and assumptions about racial categories are used to justify and reproduce a racial hierarchy that unjustly limits access to power, resources, rights, and privileges to some on the basis of race, while at the same time giving unjust amounts of those things to others. Racism also occurs when this kind of unjust social structure is produced by the failure to account for race and the force it exerts in all aspects of society, both historically and today. By this definition of racism, a belief, worldview, or an action is racist when it supports the continuance of this kind of racially imbalanced system of power and privilege. So if you want to know whether an action is racist, then the question to ask about it is: Does it help to reproduce a racial hierarchy that gives some more power, privileges, rights, and resources than others, on the basis of race? Framing the question this way means that a variety of different kinds of thoughts and actions can be defined as racist. These are hardly limited to overt forms of racism that are highlighted in our historical narrative on the problem, like physical violence, using racial slurs, and plainly discriminating against people on the basis of race. By this definition, racism today often takes much more subtle, nuanced, and even hidden forms. To test this theoretical understanding of racism, lets examine some cases in which behavior or actions might have racist consequences, even though a person doesnt identify as a racist or intend for their actions to be racist. Dressing As an Indian for Halloween People who grew up in the 1970s or 80s are very likely to have seen kids dressed as Indians (Native Americans) for Halloween, or have gone as one at some point during their childhood. The costume, which draws on stereotypical portrayals of Native American culture and dress, including feathered headdresses, leather, and fringe clothing, remains fairly popular today and is widely available for men, women, children, and babies from a wide range of costume suppliers. No longer limited to Halloween, elements of the costume have become popular and common elements of outfits worn by attendees of music festivals across the U.S. While its unlikely that anyone who wears such a costume, or dresses their child in one, intends to be racist, dressing as an Indian for HalloweenÃ is not as innocent as it may seem. Thats because the costume itself acts as a racial stereotype- it reduces an entire race of people, one composed of a diverse array of culturally distinct groups, to a small collection of physical elements. Racial stereotypes are dangerous because they play a crucial role in the social process of marginalizing groups of people on the basis of race, and in most cases, stripping those people of their humanity and reducing them to objects. The stereotypical image of the Indian in particular tends to fix Native Americans in the past, suggesting that they are not an important part of the present. This works to divert attention away from systems of economic and racial inequality that continue to exploit and oppress Native Americans today. For these reasons, dressing as an Indian for Halloween, or wearing any k ind of costume that is composed of racial stereotypes, is in fact an act of racism. All Lives Matter The contemporary social movement Black Lives Matter was born in 2013 following the acquittal of the man who killed 17-year-old Trayvon Martin. The movement grew and came to national prominence in 2014 following the police killings of Michael Brown and Freddie Gray. The name of the movement and the widely used hashtag that catalyzed it assert the importance of Black lives because the widespread violence against Black people in the U.S. and the oppression they suffer in a society that is systemically racist suggests that their lives doÃ notÃ matter. The history of enslavement of Black people andÃ racism against them is premised on the belief, whether conscious or not, that their lives are expendable and inconsequential. So, members of the movement and its supporters believe that it is necessary to assert that Black lives do in fact matter, as they draw attention to racism and ways to effectively fight it. Following media attention to the movement, some began to respond to it be stating or writing on social media that all lives matter. Of course, no one can argue with this claim. It is inherently true and rings to many with an air of egalitarianism. To many it is both an obvious and harmless statement. However, when we consider it as a response to the assertion that Black lives matter, we can see that it serves to divert attention from an anti-racist social movement. And, in the context of the racial history and contemporary racism of U.S. society, it works as a rhetorical device that ignores and silences Black voices, and draws attention away from the very real problems of racism that Black Lives Matter seeks to highlight and address. Whether one means to or not, doing so works to preserve the racial hierarchy of white privilege and supremacy. So, in the context of a dire need to listen to Black people when they talk about racism and what we need to do to help end it, stating that all lives matter is a racist act. Voting for Donald Trump Voting in elections is the lifeblood of American democracy. It is both a right and a duty of every citizen, and it has long been considered taboo to denigrate or chastise those whose political views and choices differ from ones own. This is because a democracy composed of multiple parties can only function when respect and cooperation are present. But during 2016, the public comments and political positions of Donald Trump have prompted many to buck the norm of civility. Many have characterized Trump and his supporters as racist, and many relationships have been destroyed in the process. So is it racist to support Trump? To answer that question one has to understand what he represents within the racial context of the U.S. Unfortunately, Donald Trump has a long history of behaving in racist ways. Throughout the campaign and prior to it, Trump made statements that denigrated racial groups and are rooted in dangerous racial stereotypes. His history in business is blighted by examples of discrimination against people of color. Throughout the campaign Trump routinely condoned violence against people of color, and condoned through his silence the white supremacist attitudes and racist actions of people among his supporters. Politically speaking, the policies he supports, like, for example, closing and defunding family planning clinics, those related to immigration and citizenship, overturning the Affordable Healthcare Act, and his proposed income tax brackets which penalize the poor and working classes will specifically harm people of color, at greater rates than they will harm white people, if they are passed into law. In doing so, these policies will help preserve the racial hierarchy of the U.S., white p rivilege, and white supremacy. Those who voted for Trump endorsed these policies, his attitudes, and behaviorall of which fit the sociological definition of racism. So, even if a person doesnt agree that thinking and acting this way is right, even if they themselves dont think and act this way, voting for Donald Trump was an act of racism. This reality is likely a hard pill to swallow for those of you who supported the Republican candidate. The good news is, its never too late to change. If you oppose racism and want to help fight it, there are practical things you can do in your everyday life as individuals, as members of communities, and as citizens of the U.S. to help end racism.
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
GENSTAT Linear Statistical Modelling - Math Problem Example The histogram for the folate levels appears also to satisfy the assumption of normality. However, the variances for the three groups do not satisfy the assumption of homogeneity. The variance of Group I is very large compared to the variances of Group II and III. (c) Regardless of what you concluded about the assumptions for analysis of variance, use the GENSTAT analysis of variance commands to test the hypothesis that ventilation treatment has no effect on mean red cell folate level. Include appropriate GENSTAT printout to support your conclusions. ***** Analysis of variance ***** Variate: folate Source of variation d.f. s.s. m.s. v.r. F pr. ventil 2 15516. 7758. 3.71 0.044 Residual 19 39716. 2090. Total 21 55232. ***** Tables of means ***** Variate: folate Grand mean 283.2 ventil I II III 316.6 256.4 278.0 rep. 8 9 5 *** Standard errors of differences of means *** Table ventil rep. unequal d.f. 19 s.e.d. 28.92X min.rep 25.50 max-min 21.55X max.rep (No comparisons in categories where s.e.d. marked with an X) The results of ANOVA test show that there is a significant difference between the three groups. Ventilation has an effect on mean red cell folate levels. Furthermore, the probability of F was 0.044, which is less than the alpha level, 0.05. (d) (e) Produce appropriate residual plots to check further the appropriateness of the analysis of variance model. Comment, in the light of these plots, on the adequacy of the model. ANSWER: The histogram...The measures were independent of the researcher's judgment. The histogram for the folate levels appears also to satisfy the assumption of normality. However, the variances for the three groups do not satisfy the assumption of homogeneity. The variance of Group I is very large compared to the variances of Group II and III. (c) Regardless of what you concluded about the assumptions for analysis of variance, use the GENSTAT analysis of variance commands to test the hypothesis that ventilation treatment has no effect on mean red cell folate level. Include appropriate GENSTAT printout to support your conclusions. The results of ANOVA test show that there is a significant difference between the three groups. Ventilation has an effect on mean red cell folate levels. Furthermore, the probability of F was 0.044, which is less than the alpha level, 0.05. The histogram shows that the residuals are not normally distributed. Also, the normal plot shows that the residuals do not fit a straight line. In the light of these observations, it can be said the model is not adequate. The assumptions for the use ANOVA are violated. The model included only 4 of the original 9 variables. It discarded the other 5 explanatory variables. With these 4 variables, the equation can account for the observed data. This is shown by the fact that the mean of the residuals for the model is 0.
Monday, February 10, 2020
Ethics in medical case studies - Research Paper Example Believing that the procedure would succeed, the researchers strongly stand on their ground that no consent from patients was necessary (Johnmueller.org, 2010). Three years after the incident and after a year of probation of the researchers involved in the incident, one of them was elected president of the American Association for Cancer Research (Johnmueller.org, 2010). The proponent of this paper tries to assess the issues involved in the above case, how they were handled and might have been handled differently. Below are some of the ethical issues involved in the above case. Oral consent but no documentation The researchers were able to point out that oral consents were made but there was no documentation involved due to some certain reasons. This made it clear that the entire research was a one-sided approach which strongly emphasized only the main objectives of the researchers, without taking into account the rights of the respondents. Rules or guidelines on what is right and app ropriate conduct are all incorporated in ethics (Rumrill, Cook, & Wiley, 2011). Thus, there should be appropriate way to conduct research among the chosen respondents especially in medical research. Research involving human subjects includes legal and ethical considerations which primarily include human subjectsÃ¢â¬â¢ protection, protection of privacy and the disclosure of risks involved (Kulynych, 2002). Furthermore, since 1980s epidemiologists and physicians adhered to the importance of informed consent in certain investigations (Regidor, 2004). In the case of Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital, researchers strongly argued that they were able to inform the respondents through oral consent due to certain reasons. One reason is that the respondents were indigent, which means it would be appropriate to explain everything to them in an oral approach. However, the case of Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital did not only include ethical considerations, but tied in it was legal accountability of the researchers. These two seemed to be integrated in the case of Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital and the researchers involved. Citing the significance of informed consent, the researchers were able to do at least somewhere in the right thing, but the problem in this approach is the lack of showing some documents to prove that indeed there were oral consents made on the part between the respondents and the researchers. Oral consent was appropriate at some point knowing that it still belongs to the category of informed consent. However, there still something lacking in it in the case of therapeutic research where there seems to some remarkable risks involved. Consent should be highly documented in this case so whatever may happen, there would be some legal basis that will point out to adherence to the ethical standards. Custom to perform dangerous medical procedures without consent As stated earlier, in medical research, the respondents have the right to express their consent in certain research investigations. This is considered to be sound and ethical especially if it has to be applied in the case of Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital. However, the said hospital had certain customary procedure that in the event of performing dangerous medical procedures, consent from patients or respondents will not be necessary because it can be waved. In fact, this is supported by some legal and ethical standard that at some point, the
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Managing Resources Essay The learning resource I have chosen is actually also used as an ice breaker for a lesson and then used to build on students communication, reading and understanding skills. The task is used to put students under a time constraint to complete a task of ready and answering simple and possibly trick questions in a short time frame. This resource is not used in a way to trick students but used to then get them to reflect on their ready and interpretation of a question. For example, the first part of the document tell them what they must do and this also asks them to use the space before the number to write their answers. Many students do not do this and proceed to write their answers at the end of the question. When a student is under stress, they may be able to learn skills in much less than the usual time. This is the theory also used in military basic training. It is known as Ã¢â¬ËQuick Learning Under PressureÃ¢â¬â¢, it reduces the time it takes to learn a skill through study. This theory has been interpreted under many different ways and Ann Dupuis suggests that under pressure students will gain new skills without taking time to study. Her theory goes onto describe how a Physician caught on a battlefield will under pressure help other people and learn surgery to assist other. I feel this adapts itself to my resource. Many students do not know how to adapt their skills under a timed period such as an exam and placing them under pressure for a short period of 5 minutes will get them later to reflect on their actions. This learning resource however may not be suitable to all students and it is not always used where I am aware of slow reader or maybe people who suffer with dyslexia. The choice to use this is based upon group dynamics and ability. When I thought of designing this resource I took into account how learners who complete this task can reflect on each question and question other peer group member answers. This then is reflected within KolbÃ¢â¬â¢s idea on the learning cycle. Kolb works on a four stage cycle of Concrete Experience, Reflective observation, Abstract Conceptualization and Active Experiment. The experience side of things is the student actual having to complete the task. The reflective observation is covered by completed a group review of the answers. So at the end of the 5 minutes I will lead the students through the questions and statement finding out the students answers and getting them to reflect both personally and as a group on what they had originally written. Now they are reflecting are they changing their mind about the answers? Do they see their initial error when reading the question? The 3rd stage Abstract Conceptualization is then covered by the students looking at the task and ideas or concepts of others around them. The other student interpretation of the questions. The student will then process this information and is able to make a more informed decision. Final the Active Experiment part. 9/10 students want a copy to take a way and try on friends and family so they can put their new skills or understanding into practise of others. This theory is adapted from Kolbs 2006 theory which he updated added extra reasoning behind the 4 main stages. The learning resource once we have gone through the answers can now have the idea and new acquired skills in practising exam questions or exam papers under timed conditions. It also teaches the students not to read something once and immediately think the understand what is being asked of them. When I am moving on from this learning resources onto practise exams I am conscience of the different learning styles I have in the room. I have to ask myself what type of learning styles I have in the room. Do I have the reflector, the theorist, the activist or the pragmatist? The understanding behind this is designed by Honey Mumford. They came up with these 4 titles. Reflectors like to stand back and look at a situation from different perspectives. They like to collect data and think about it carefully before coming to any conclusions. They enjoy observing others and will listen to their views before offering their own. Theorists adapt and integrate observations into complex and logically sound theories. They think problems through in a step by step way. They tend to be perfectionists who like to fit things into a rational scheme. They tend to be detached and analytical rather than subjective or emotive in their thinking. Activists like to be involved in new experiences. They are open minded and enthusiastic about new ideas but get bored with implementation. They enjoy doing things and tend to act first and consider the implications afterwards. They like working with others but tend to hog the limelight. And finally; Pragmatists are keen to try things out. They want concepts that can be applied to their job. They tend to be impatient with lengthy discussions and are practical and down to earth. The one good thing about this resource is as long as I have it on paper to hand out (good planning) I donÃ¢â¬â¢t need any other resource or technology. I have used this learning resource as a back up lesson in the past when either our computer systems have gone down, or I have arrived at a venue that does not have ICT facilities of some way of showing resources on a smart board or projector. This learning resource is shared out so widely. As mentioned earlier many students ask for a copy to take away with them so I ensure I always have spares to hand to give out and share the experience. Even if it is just for fun.! The main learning outcomes are to show the students that they need to read the question carefully, even if under pressure. To look out for trick questions or two part questions. And finally extracting the information out of the question that is not relevant to exactly what is being asked of them. In relation to legal requirements, this learning resources has been adapted from a many similar styles. I have used a number of my own questions, however I have added questions I have seen elsewhere and this includes from magazine riddles for fun and other websites. This resource has been changed several times and questions replaced with what I felt where better one to get the students thinking more. This then I believe fall under my Intellectual property right. This is the ownership of ideas or work. Copyright is different as copyrighted material means information created by someone else and a you are not allowed to copy it without the owner permission which may incur costs. An easy understanding of this would be music. If I brought a cd from a store and copied it onto a blank disc and then sold it I would be breaking copy right laws as I am selling something someone else owns. This is the same with learning materials.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Feminine Roles in OthelloÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã A variety of roles have women in them in William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s tragic drama Othello. Let us in this essay examine the female characters and their roles. Ã One key role for the heroine of the drama, Desdemona, is to support the general. David Bevington in William Shakespeare: Four Tragedies states the heroÃ¢â¬â¢s dependence on Desdemona: Ã OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s most tortured speeches (3.4.57-77, 4.2.49-66) reveal the extent to which he equates the seemingly betraying woman he has so depended on for happiness with his own mother, who gave OthelloÃ¢â¬â¢s father a handkerchief and threatened him with loss of her love if he should lose it. (226) Ã A different role for the heroine appears at the beginning of the play. Iago persuades the rejected suitor of Desdemona, Roderigo, to accompany him to the home of Brabantio, DesdemonaÃ¢â¬â¢s father, in the middle of the night. Once there the two awaken the senator with loud shouts about his daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s elopement with Othello. This is the initial reference to the role of women in the play Ã¢â¬â the role of young wife. IagoÃ¢â¬â¢s bawdy references to the senatorÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter present a second role of women Ã¢â¬â that of illicit lover. The fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude is that life without his Desdemona will be much worse than before; without her he foresees Ã¢â¬Å"nought but bitterness.Ã¢â¬ Here is seen another role or function of women in the drama Ã¢â¬â that of comforter for the aged. Brabantio is the old father, and he hates to lose the comforting services of his Desdemona. Ã Othello expresses his sentiments to Iago regarding his relationship with the senatorÃ¢â¬â¢s daughter, saying Ã that I love the gentle Desdemona, Ã Ã Ã Ã I would not my unhoused free condition Ã Ã Ã Ã Put into c... ...emonaÃ¢â¬â¢s falseness. Emilia at this point becomes a beacon of light and truth; she contradicts Iago: Ã¢â¬Å"Thou art rash as fire, to say / That she was false: O, she was heavenly true!Ã¢â¬ and accuses him of lying and of causing murder: Ã¢â¬Å"And your reports have set the murder on.Ã¢â¬ EmiliaÃ¢â¬â¢s stunning interrogation and conviction of her own husband cost her dearly; she is thus absolved from her earlier collaboration with Iago and ends on a note of innocence. Ã Thus it is seen that the roles of women are many and varied Ã¢â¬â and are key to the successful development of the story. Ã WORKS CITED Ã Bevington, David, ed. William Shakespeare: Four Tragedies. New York: Bantam Books, 1980. Ã Shakespeare, William. Othello. In The Electric Shakespeare. Princeton University. 1996. http://www.eiu.edu/~multilit/studyabroad/othello/othello_all.html No line nos. Ã
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
There are a number of misconceptions many have regarding the philosophy of existentialism. Probably the most common misconception is the notion that it is a nihilistic, dark philosophy with a miserable outlook. This is a horribly inaccurate assessment as existentialism is really a philosophy of looking at life through a realistic lens. Of course, different people see things differently and this is why even famous, leading existentialist philosophers such as Kierkegaard and Nietzsche have diverse teaching methodologies for presenting existentialism. In order to clearly understand existentialism, one must look at some of these differences between these two existentialist philosophers.Both of these two philosophers understand that it is often perception that gets in the way of reality. That is, people will look at life their own biases and perspectives as opposed to looking at reality. Both Kierkegaard and Nietzsche understand that this inherent flaw is common among all humans and they stress that improvement of the individual can overcome this problem. Their approaches to the problem, however, lack much in terms of similarity.Probably the main difference between the two would be the notion of inward understanding vs. outward expression. For Kierkegaard, there is much internalization. That is, the individual needs to look at his or her own flaws and come to an anagnoris of that is somewhat akin to enlightenment and personal spirituality. For Nietzsche, the approach is far more humanist as the process for self improvement is found in how the person acts. That is to say, enlightenment does not come from a quasi sense of spirituality as much as it comes in personal achievement in realized goals. In a way, Nietzsche's Ã¢â¬Å"supermanÃ¢â¬ displays who he is through his actions. For Kierkegaard, there is internal philosophizing that creates a different perspective. This, too, can change the person but without the external displays.Individualism is a very important po int for both of these philosophers. Often, existentialism is the philosophy of the self and is not concerned with collectivism. (This is one of the reasons why the philosophy is erroneously referred to as being pure narcissism) Kierkegaard, while very negative towards the notion of group think and groups, stresses that there are certain gains that can be made from within the group.This is provided, of course, that the man does not allow the group to take over his thinking. For Nietzsche it would seem there is more anger and bitterness towards the group. He has little use for collective pursuits of any kind and would prefer to shun it as opposed to Kierkegaard plays the collective for individual benefit. That is, use the flaws of the group as a guiding principle for self enlightenment.If there was any confusion present it would center on the notion that one could be self enlightened or a superman within a vacuum. That is, if you are the loner who feels Ã¢â¬Å"above it allÃ¢â¬ what value can that be worth if the group collective does not honor you achievements. Perhaps Kierkegaard and Nietzsche would state that whatever the group believes is worthless but most people do hope to gain value from the collective's envy. Then again, perhaps this confusion derives from rejecting some of the isolationist tendencies of existentialism. If you are not willing to completely reject Ã¢â¬Å"the groupÃ¢â¬ then much of existentialism will prove unappealing.Once again, while the teachings of Kierkegaard and Nietzsche in regards to promoting existentialism seek the same goal, their approaches have a number of differences. Some are overt and some are subtle. Then, some are merely a matter of perception.HeideggerBut what really is the human being? While there are physical, biological and even spiritual aspects that comprise the human being most people can not put the sums together and provide a finite, conclusive answer to that very important question. Yet, it has been a ques tion posed by many existential philosophers for many years. One existentialist who sought to provide a very unique and definitive insight to what is a human being was Heidegger/ The attempts to do so are seen in his examination of Dasein. Dasein is essentially a way of looking at the individual's place in the world. As such, if you understand the person's place in the world then you will understand the person. In a way, this is because a being and a being's environment are inseparable. After all, does not environment shape the being?The interesting point that Heidegger puts forth is that throughout human history there is an unfortunate tendency by society to ignore the question of being. This is because the being is taken for granted. That is, individualism is somewhat discarded due to benign neglect. This is the result of putting far too much emphasis on society towards looking at the being on overly psychoanalytical of not overly metaphysical means. In other words, the collective has too much of a complicated definition for the being. This is often because society does not look at the being from the perspective of extreme simplicity: a human is a thinking organism prone to emotion. When a school of thought or an institution ignores this fact the ability to truly understand the being is lost.In a way, it would seem that Heidegger would hope that the being Ã¢â¬â the individual Ã¢â¬â would ignore society as it generally ignores him. That does not mean one should be dismissive or insubordinate to the rule of law. It simply means one should seek his or her own individual path and try to avoid the collective mentality and the influences it pedals.In a similar vein, there are a number of strong opinions surrounding Heidegger's philosophy vs. Wittgenstein's Logical Positivism. On a baseline level, Logical Positivism is a rebuke of mysticism and seeks to establish a more secular, logic based outlook on life. In a way, it is much like traditional existentialism although its approach can be somewhat more biting. What makes the comparison between Heidegger's theories and Logical Positivism is the fact that followers of Logical Positivism often accuse Heidegger's theories of being overly based in mysticism!This is a bizarre notion because it would infer that Heidegger's outlook on the concept of the being was not based on humanism, Instead, it would be inferred that the being centered on mysticism. Perhaps this is because those who prescribe to Logical Positivism see concepts of Ã¢â¬Å"the beingÃ¢â¬ as being psychoanalytical variants of mysticism and spirituality. Obviously, this was not Heidegger's intention and such an inference would infer confusion.Perhaps this is because the Logical Positives followers would assume that there is far too much speculation inherent to answering questions regarding who or what is the being. Again, this brings us to the antagonistic attitudes certain realists may have regarding anything psychoanalytical. P erhaps to these individuals looking inward to answer questions of being might walk to close of a line towards spirituality. (Again, this is not Heidegger's intent but this is how some critics may have defined it.) Notion of spirituality walk too closely to mysticism for followers of Logical Positivism and that is why they may very well reject Heidegger.On a basic level, however, Heidegger's theories of the being are sound. Of course, there will be critics and that is expected, but to outright dismiss the benefits of Heidegger's work upon cursory examination would not be the wisest path to take.